Class 9

             I.     Neuron Hypothesis

A.   What defines a cell?

                                                           1.      The Basics of Cells

                                                           2.      The plasma membrane


B.   Unique Structure of the Neuron

                                                           1.      Neuron structure tutorial at

                                                           2.      General parts

                                                           3.      Types of Neurons

                                a. Base on Processes

                                        i.    Unipolar

                                        ii.   Bipolar

                                        iii.  Multipolar

                                a. Base on Connections

                                        i.    Sensory (A)

                                        ii.   Motor (B)

                                        iii.  Interneuron (C)

                                                           4.      Axonal Cytoskeleton  

                                                           5.      Axoplasmic transport

          C. Glial Cells

               1.  Astrocytes

            2. Myelin Cells

                    a. Oligodendrycytes

                    b. Schwann Cells

3.     Back to the Blood-Brain Barrier

II. Basic Chemistry

A.   ISSUE: All neural membrane potentials are the product of basic physics and chemistry

B.    Atoms and Binding

1.                 The atom

a)                 The nucleus

b)                The electron shell or cloud

(1)              A full ring

(2)              A partially full ring

2.                 Binding

a)                 Ionic binding and ions:

(1)              Electron from one atom joins other atom, both become charged.






(6)              In solution, ions will tend to wander a part

b)                Covalent binding and "sharing electrons":

(1)              Electrons are shared - tightly bound -

(2)              Generally, atoms cannot separate until bond is broken

C.   Concentration: amount of substance per volume.

1.                 Atoms do not move purposively

2.                 Chemicals will flow from high concentrations to low with effect of evening out concentration: by random movements: Diffusion

D.   Entropy

1.                 A definition of entropy: no differences anywhere

2.                 That entropy increases is the second law of thermodynamics

3.                 Thus diffusion increases entropy

4.                 Enthalpy: DEF: forces that can lead to organization

  1. Application of Chemistry to Membrane

    1. Channels in the Membrane

    2. What channels are there